3D-printed electrodes for the detection of mycotoxins in food
Additive manufacturing, also termed 3D printing, enables economical, dynamic and rapid fabrication of customisable three-dimensional (3D) devices catering for specialised functions. Herein, we report the fabrication of 3D-printed graphene electrodes by fused deposition modelling (FDM), which were then used for the electrochemical detection of the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA). Chemical and electrochemical pre-treatment procedures were applied to remove the inert polylactic acid external layer from the graphene electrodes, exposing and activating the inner graphene surface. These procedures enhanced the sensitivity of the electrodes towards electrochemical detection of ZEA. The activated 3D-printed graphene electrodes displayed a good linear response (r = 0.995) over a wide concentration range (10 to 300 µM). This proof-of-concept application opens up a wide range of possibilities for the fabrication of 3D-printed electrochemical devices for use in food analysis and food safety.